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HomeOff Grid & Self SufficiencyWhat If: You are Focused By A Deepfake Cyberattack?

What If: You are Focused By A Deepfake Cyberattack?

Don’t consider all the pieces you see on the web. This is among the basic guidelines of utilizing the worldwide internet, and it dates again to the earliest days of dial-up. Within the ’90s, chain emails unfold hoaxes like wildfire, however these of us who weren’t solely gullible knew to query something we obtained with “FW: FW: FW:” within the topic line. The rise of chat rooms and social media made it even simpler to unfold misinformation to 1000’s of strangers.

Across the similar time, photograph enhancing software program was turning into vastly extra highly effective and accessible, so we started to see the unfold of Photoshopped hoax photos throughout the web. Very similar to chain letters had morphed into chain emails, such a hoax was nothing new, however the development of tech made it far simpler to create and disseminate. Picture manipulation strategies that used to require hours of labor in a photographer’s darkroom may now be completed in seconds.

At this time, misinformation has reached one other new frontier: synthetic intelligence. Publicly accessible AI instruments are getting used to automate the creation of so-called deepfakes, a time period primarily based on the “deep studying” neural community expertise that’s harnessed to create them. Now, as a substitute of manually mixing photos collectively in Photoshop, we are able to let AI do the onerous work for us. And it’s not solely helpful for nonetheless photos — deepfake expertise can even course of every body of a video to swap a topic’s face (for instance: AI may also be used to intently mimic a human voice primarily based on audio samples and skim again any textual content the consumer inputs (

Deepfakes aren’t only a hypothetical risk — they’re already getting used to govern, confuse, or outright deceive viewers. In 2020, the mother and father of Joaquin Oliver, a 17-year-old who died through the Parkland faculty taking pictures, used deepfake expertise to recreate their lifeless son’s likeness and create a video the place he urged younger People to vote for extra aggressive gun management. Extra lately, deepfakes of each Ukrainian President Zelensky and Russian President Putin appeared in an try to encourage the opposing facet’s troops to give up or retreat; the latter clip was aired on Russian TV in what the Kremlin decried as a “hack.”

Cybercriminals are additionally utilizing deepfake expertise to steer unsuspecting companies and people to switch cash or surrender delicate data. And in probably the most twisted instances, AI is getting used to generate deepfake pornography of individuals — even youngsters — who’re completely unaware of the disturbing and humiliating means their likenesses are being altered. A 2022 report by the U.S. Division of Homeland Safety said, “Non-consensual pornography emerged because the catalyst for proliferating deepfake content material, and nonetheless represents a majority of AI-enabled artificial content material within the wild … The ramifications of deepfake pornography have solely begun to be seen.”

It’s turning into more and more tough to differentiate actual pictures, video, and audio from deepfakes. What would you do should you suspected it’s possible you’ll be the goal of a manipulative deepfake assault by cybercriminals? How are you going to confirm info you obtain earlier than falling prey to those high-tech social engineering techniques? We requested cybersecurity skilled W. Dean Freeman and worldwide threat administration knowledgeable David Roy to weigh in on this complicated assault.

The Situation

Scenario Sort

Focused by cybercriminals

Your Crew

Your self


Seattle, Washington




Cloudy; excessive 47 levels F, low 38 levels F

The Setup

You’re the pinnacle IT man at a household owned enterprise close to Seattle. More often than not, your job duties encompass primary tech help and PC troubleshooting for the corporate’s 23 workers. Your employer offers with numerous distributors abroad, so that you’re used to getting messages at odd hours with not-so-good English. Except for a couple of apparent Nigerian prince rip-off emails and run-of-the-mill malware, the corporate hasn’t skilled any substantial cybersecurity threats previously, however you’ve at all times tried to take care of good safety protocols regardless.

The Complication

On a Tuesday afternoon, you get a panicked cellphone name from Susan, the proprietor of the corporate. She says her brother Dan, who’s presently on a enterprise journey to go to suppliers all through Jap Europe, despatched her a video message a couple of minutes in the past. Within the video, he defined that one of many firm’s key suppliers is owed a considerable amount of cash and is demanding quick cost. Supposedly, in the event that they don’t obtain the cost throughout the subsequent few hours, they’ll swap to an unique partnership along with your largest competitor. Susan is aware of this is able to be catastrophic and would possibly even trigger the corporate to exit of enterprise.

She tells you she instantly tried to name Dan again and known as the provider, however neither one is choosing up — cellular phone protection isn’t the very best in that nation, and it’s exterior regular enterprise hours. She’s contemplating sending cash to the indicated account, since she’s completely sure that the particular person within the video was her brother. It sounded and seemed similar to him, and he appeared to have data in regards to the enterprise and its suppliers.

Nonetheless, she desires to know if in case you have any methods to confirm the video first. What strategies or instruments can you employ to test the legitimacy of the video message and its sender? In the event you decide it’s a deepfake, what different steps must you take to guard the enterprise (and its homeowners) from comparable cyberattacks sooner or later?

Cybersecurity Skilled W. Dean Freeman’s Method

Alright, so I’m both going through the approaching monetary destruction of my employer, or a particularly subtle risk actor, and I would like to determine which one it’s quick. Two out of the three outcomes right here have me on the lookout for a brand new job quickly if I don’t keep on high of this. Fortunately, I’m fairly good at what I do, if I do say so myself, and I’ve seen comparable threats earlier than. Simply because there is perhaps a brand new expertise at play right here doesn’t actually change many of the fundamentals.

First, let’s assume via the potential conditions:

  1. This can be a authentic, albeit uncommon and regarding request.
  2. The video is illegitimate, created by way of a generative AI device to supply a “deepfake.”
  3. The video is real, however Dan’s beneath duress and it is a complete totally different kind of crime (extortion and presumably kidnapping).

Every of those potential conditions goes to have its personal set of tells and its personal incident response playbook, in addition to some particular countermeasures. Additionally they share some preparatory mitigations in widespread.


So, every time workers, particularly key employees or executives journey, the chance of knowledge breaches leading to mental property theft go means up, and relying on the area of journey and the trade you’re in, the risk varies. Figuring out this, I’ve coached Dan and others on the next:

  • By no means depart digital gadgets unattended, not even in resort rooms.
  • When crossing borders, at all times deliver clear gadgets. Don’t take confidential firm info via customs checkpoints.
  • All the time use the corporate VPN when touring, and ensure to make use of the complete tunnel profile, not break up tunnels. When touring, there’s no such factor as trusted community entry, even at a buyer web site.
  • Pay attention to anybody you meet in inns, bars, and many others. who appears notably fascinated with what you do for a dwelling.
  • Ensure you have the best privateness settings on private social media accounts, and watch out what you publish, particularly concerning the corporate.

To various levels, I’ve additionally tried to lock down companies resembling e mail, such that customers both need to be on the native community or VPN to ship and obtain their firm e mail, and am leveraging protection in depth strategies, utilizing confirmed applied sciences, for endpoint and community safety, in addition to entry to cloud-based purposes. Whereas nothing is foolproof, the price of attacking the community is far larger than it was after I first began at this job.

I’ve additionally ready myself to determine and counter new and rising threats, via self-study and formal lessons. I keep on high of the cutting-edge in my craft in order that I proceed to be an asset, but additionally perceive that it’s an arms race, and the momentum is mostly with the attackers.

AI generated image of a woman at a coffee shop.

About: Nothing about this picture is actual. It was created utilizing the free AI picture technology device in lower than 30 seconds. The positioning additionally permits customers to add photos to provide the AI “inspiration.”


Now that I’m on the cellphone with Susan, we now have a possible disaster, and one the place there isn’t essentially a particular playbook but. Fortunately, it’s a small firm with little pink tape, however given the circumstances, it may have proved disastrous if she hadn’t known as me and had simply despatched the cash. It’s time to assume quick, however assume totally.

To ensure I’ve my bases lined, I’m going to run via three parallel investigations: monetary, conventional incident response, and in addition look particularly on the video to see if I can inform whether or not it’s real.

The monetary investigation will go as follows:

  • Give the video a fast once-over and write down the account info.
  • Do a cursory lookup of the routing info to see the place the financial institution is positioned and whether or not that gives any apparent pink flags.
  • Verify with the pinnacle of finance to see if she is aware of whether or not it is a financial institution (and even higher, an account) that we’ve used related to that accomplice earlier than.

If the request is to a monetary entity that’s recognized to us and the account is related to the shopper, then that dramatically lowers the chance. It nonetheless doesn’t imply that the request is one hundred pc real although.

The normal forensic investigation will focus each on the e-mail itself, particularly checking the header info to see the place it actually originated from, in addition to correlating that exercise with logs from the corporate mail server and VPN. If it appears to be like like Dan really despatched the e-mail from his laptop computer, via the corporate server, then once more, this reduces the prospect that it’s false. If it comes from his private e mail, that’d get my hackles up. If the mail headers are clearly cast, then we now have a number of potential points, and a deepfake is definitely a risk.

So, the financial institution is in the identical normal area because the shopper however isn’t a financial institution that we’ve completed enterprise via earlier than. We are able to’t know who the account belongs to presently, in order that’s a lifeless finish however positively suspicious. The e-mail didn’t come via Dan’s company account, however did come from his private Gmail account. The e-mail was despatched via Gmail. Dan’s apparently used his Gmail account to ship a couple of messages to Susan lately, so she wouldn’t have thought that was uncommon. At this level, I’m going forward and disable Dan’s company accounts and be sure that he doesn’t have any entry to firm knowledge.

Given these information, it’s going to be necessary to evaluate the video. The 2 main prospects at this level are the video being a deepfake, or it being a real video and made beneath duress. The truth that Susan is Dan’s sister and is satisfied the video is of Dan means it very effectively might be a duress scenario.

I’ve Susan pull a bunch of pictures of Dan from social media and her cellular phone and ship them to me so I can deliver them up on one monitor, whereas watching the video on one other. Reviewing the video critically, I search for the next telltale indicators that the video is a deepfake:

  • A very shiny, waxy complexion to the pores and skin.
  • Audio is out of sync with the actions of the mouth.
  • No blinking.
  • Eyes not shifting in sync with one another (cross eyed, and many others.).
  • Variations within the physique, notably the ears and limbs.
  • Any modifications in speech patterns from what I and Susan know of Dan.

Whereas lighting and different technical elements may produce the looks of waxy pores and skin or out-of-sync audio in a real video, the biometric elements are going to be the foremost giveaway. That is due to how deepfake movies are typically produced.

Feeding the generative AI with nonetheless photos to supply the likeness tends to lead to deepfake movies the place the eyes don’t blink in any respect, which is mostly unnatural for folks. Moreover, the pc has a tough time lining up each eyes towards the identical focus when making an attempt to regulate for motion, so if Dan seems cross-eyed within the video however is thought to not be in actual life, that’d be indicator as effectively.

Most deepfakes are made by making use of an extruded face picture onto a reside actor. Typically, the angles are onerous to make for the pc and the human driving the manufacturing, so the AI gained’t overlay on high of the ears, fingers, and many others. Due to this, I pay very shut consideration to any variations in Dan’s ears within the video from what I can see within the recognized pictures of him I’ve out there.

As a result of Dan typically represents the corporate in public occasions, there’s ample alternative for fraudsters to gather voice samples to synthesize is voice, however since any potential attackers are possible neither native English audio system, nor are they American from our area, there very effectively could also be variations in speech cadence, grammar, and phrase choice that point out that the voice is “studying” a script and isn’t really Dan speaking.

After figuring out the potential indicators, I additionally evaluate the video metadata to see if I can acquire any perception into when and the place it was recorded and on what system. Any mismatch between the place Dan is and what kind of cellphone he has will affirm that the video is pretend.

Audio studio digital voice recording voiceover sound wave on computer screen.

About: Utilizing voice samples collected from social media and different public sources, AI can recreate any human voice and use it to learn a given script.


We’ve got sufficient proof at this level to know the request is pretend, and that Dan’s private Gmail has been compromised. I’ve already disabled Dan’s account however might want to make a extra thorough DFIR (Knowledge Forensics and Incident Response) investigation into the community to see if any company knowledge could have been compromised.

I persuade Susan to not make the cost, however she’s nonetheless very shaken up. We’re nearly sure the video is pretend as a result of biometric mismatches that she didn’t catch at first — watching on her cellphone in a panic — which suggests he’s in all probability not kidnapped, however he’s nonetheless out of pocket and his standing is unknown. As a consequence of tensions within the area, we’re nonetheless nervous.

At this level, we now have a number of priorities, one being getting ahold of Dan. I’ve Susan name the U.S. Embassy within the nation the place Dan is and report that he often is the sufferer of against the law and ask to be put in contact with the related authorities. Moreover, we’ll nonetheless proceed to strive contacting Dan straight, and thru the resort, in addition to any enterprise associates on the vendor.

To assist tie up unfastened ends on the cyber facet, I’d possible attain out to trade contacts at related corporations, in addition to contacts made via the FBI’s InfraGard program. I should need to fill out the paperwork, however associates and associates may also help get the reply quicker.

Ultimate Ideas

Deepfakes are a serious problem, notably as an info warfare weapon, and have societal degree influence. As a device for cybercrime, they’re mainly only a notably nasty device within the phisherman’s toolkit. Like all cyber and data weapons, there’s a pink crew/blue crew arms race for generative AI and the detection of its output. Fortunately, AI nonetheless doesn’t beat precise intelligence, as long as you correctly apply it.

For my part, defenders, whether or not skilled incident response employees, or the common one that could also be topic to an AI-fueled crime try, are greatest served by approaching the problem with sturdy vital considering expertise and a wholesome dose of skepticism (the identical psychological instruments that’ll allow you to ferret out “pretend information” or decide should you’re being focused for a “grandkid” cellphone rip-off).

Following outlined DFIR protocols will assist provide you with extra context inside which to judge the media, along with on the lookout for the “tells.”

After all, prevention is value an oz of remedy. So, what are some issues that would’ve prevented this situation from unfolding the way in which it did?

First of all, similar to defending in opposition to facial recognition, limiting the quantity of knowledge about you (pictures, video, voice) that can be utilized to generate fakes is necessary.

Second, restrict the crossover between private and enterprise IT methods. Your identify in all probability isn’t Hillary, so finally it’ll catch as much as you.

Third, set up protocols along with your group or household for a way requests like cash transfers can be made, resembling having key phrases or “secure phrases” that have to be current to authenticate the request. Deal with any request that deviates from protocol or isn’t authenticated as illegitimate till confirmed in any other case.

Lastly, should you work for a company that has the funds, in search of out instruments designed for figuring out deepfakes and beginning to prepare fashions primarily based on high-profile members of your group, resembling C-level executives, is value exploring. The earlier you have got these methods and fashions in place earlier than an incident, the extra helpful they’ll be if there may be one.

Danger Administration Skilled David Roy’s Method


On this situation, the enterprise proprietor is between a rock and a tough place, as deepfakes have gotten commonplace as a technique of social engineering. Nonetheless, there are nonetheless prudent steps in making ready for such a scenario. First, any particular person doing enterprise internationally ought to concentrate on the inherent dangers this presents by default. No matter what you are promoting vertical, understanding easy methods to work in high-risk locations, notably growing nations, and locations the place bribery and corruption are rampant is necessary.

You could face eventualities like this by way of subcontractors and provide chain companions, so it’s prudent to have diligence in your downstream operations, the monetary standing of your companions, and consciousness of geopolitical dangers introduced in every area the place you use, particularly these round personnel and data safety.

Educating worldwide vacationers about info safety greatest practices is vital to the success of operational safety. These practices are begin: making certain that data-blocking cellphone chargers (generally known as “USB condoms”) are getting used with a view to stop knowledge theft, swapping cellular gadgets (resembling cell telephones and laptops) for those who don’t include proprietary firm knowledge earlier than leaving the U.S., and performing normal safety consciousness coaching with all employees yearly.

However even with all the cool tech on the planet, you may’t remediate or patch a human — they’re a company’s largest info safety vulnerability. For this, you may solely drill, prepare, and reinforce the significance of figuring out social engineering, phishing, knowledge mining threats, bodily threats to acquire delicate info, and probably the most tough, resisting bribes (of every kind).

To reinforce operational safety, extra ranges of personnel validation must also be in place. Code phrases for crew members or initiatives needs to be used for id verification. Nonetheless, these needs to be codes that aren’t saved electronically within the case of an information breach; as a substitute, select codes that will probably be simple to recollect for the top customers even in annoying conditions. Different distinctive personnel identifiers resembling authentication instruments may also be used (resembling one-time keys and codes from encryption gadgets).

The entire aforementioned strategies are low price and may be simply executed by a company of any dimension, however in fact, there are far more sturdy strategies for companies that do the next quantity of worldwide journey. These strategies embrace using satellite tv for pc communications for conferences, non-public worldwide transport, and coordinating with native U.S. intelligence sources in host international locations forward of vital conferences (for organizations doing work on behalf of the U.S. authorities). Like most issues, your threat mitigation functionality is commensurate to the amount of money you need to spend.

Senior Woman Giving Credit Card Details On The Phone

Above: Senior residents are sometimes the goal of cyberattacks, since they are usually much less tech-savvy than youthful folks. It’s a good suggestion to debate widespread types of phishing and social engineering along with your older members of the family and colleagues.


Essentially the most intriguing a part of the deepfake and AI craze would possibly simply be its thriller. With the ability to inform truth from fiction rapidly sufficient to make an necessary judgment is a problem, and till this key piece is found out, the chance will solely turn into higher. With the ability to disprove an AI-generated deepfake by validating id (particularly throughout an info breach) could find yourself being unattainable within the case of a risk actor controlling an info methods atmosphere.

On this scenario, id validation is essential — assuming this technique isn’t compromised as a part of the communication breach. For organizations, and extra generally, people who don’t have entry to software program that may break down metadata, file construction, or different code that compiles a video, there are some simple strategies that may a minimum of start to let a consumer perceive if a video, photograph, or different technique of communication is faked.

Most significantly, one can begin with easy geography. Within the situation, Susan is anticipating a communication from Jap Europe, nevertheless, if the deepfake video has clues that the topic seems to be in a spot fully faraway from the anticipated area, this is perhaps a straightforward step within the technique of elimination. Observe-up communications (if profitable) can support in understanding the origin. If this isn’t potential, or useful, human and emotional intelligence can be utilized, so long as the particular person evaluating the suspected deepfake has familiarity with the particular person in query.

Voice cues, resembling stuttering, tone, inflection, accent, and cadence of speech can be utilized together with bodily cues resembling blinking, normal eye/pupil motion, respiration, and the way facial motion aligns with voice tone and emotion. This stuff, blended with some other communications obtained (resembling texts, emails, voicemails, and many others.) may be evaluated as a complete to find out if you’re coping with a malicious actor, versus a colleague that desires to relay necessary info with spotty cell and knowledge protection.

In an ideal world, the group ought to prepare all personnel on safety consciousness to allow them to determine malicious actors, but additionally to allow them to differentiate themselves from these criminals when speaking with coworkers the world over. In lots of instances, cultures, translation instruments, and the phrases/phrases we use can seem “non-standard” to worldwide colleagues, and in flip, look considerably suspicious. But when everyone seems to be on the identical web page, and ensures clear communication strategies are in place, this reduces the chance of misinterpretation.

Disaster Administration

As terrifying because it may appear (and unreal, regardless of Liam Neeson films), enterprise vacationers do get kidnapped abroad. Understanding the truth of this, and easy methods to put together is sufficient to fill a complete handbook, however there are a couple of methods to organize. First, keep away from locations the place this occurs — enterprise vacationers (particularly People) working for big multinationals are probably the most generally kidnapped and most useful. This generally happens in locations like Iraq, Colombia, Mexico, Yemen, and numerous components of Northern Africa.

That mentioned, figuring out the place your personnel are always helps. Many worldwide mobile companies now provide satellite tv for pc cellular system monitoring for cell telephones, laptops, and geotags for worldwide vacationers. This isn’t solely meant for security, but additionally for functions of compliance with U.S. export rules — a pleasant complement to each security and operational safety. This may also help pinpoint in case your colleagues are misplaced, or precisely the place they need to be, when they need to be there.

In the event you suspect your colleague has been kidnapped, most significantly, keep away from contacting native police (odds are, they is perhaps in on it). Contact your embassy, your insurance coverage firm (extra on that later), and any extra sources that may help in proof assortment or ransom extraction. With that in thoughts, having insurance coverage helps. Rescue, kidnapping, and extortion insurance coverage can carry tens of millions of {dollars} in protection — sufficient to make nasty risk actors hand over your colleague. In conjunction, a company of any dimension lately must also have cyber insurance coverage that covers knowledge breach, ransomware, knowledge theft, and eraserware occasions.

Be certain to protect any (deepfake or not) info that has been offered out of your suspected kidnapped colleague and be prepared to offer info that would help in finding them. Normally, U.S. Federal businesses (principally the FBI) and the State Division could have far more subtle tech to find out the validity of data you’ve been offered. When you’ve rapidly completed all of this, it is perhaps value a heads as much as folks in your organization touring OCONUS to halt any extra journey and return residence asap.

Biometric technology digital Face Scanning form lines, triangles and particle style design

Above: Deepfake expertise can be taught a face from current pictures and movies, then superimpose it onto a reside actor’s physique. It may additionally generate new faces from scratch primarily based on widespread facial options and parameters.

Ultimate Ideas

All issues thought-about, this is able to be a reasonably tough situation for a company of any dimension. Nonetheless, implementing and executing primary ideas of personnel and operational safety, paired with a process-driven worldwide journey security strategy can go a great distance. Efficient communication strategies with deliberate touchpoints, code phrases/obfuscation of data, and normal info safety greatest practices may be the distinction between a deepfake compromising a enterprise and leading to an costly wire switch to an unsavory character, or a traditional chaotic day on the workplace.

It’s necessary to keep in mind that these assaults hit near residence as effectively. Deepfake cellphone calls threatening hurt to a member of the family except a ransom is paid or impersonating debt collectors for a recognized monetary pressure that was found via a stolen id have gotten extra commonplace. A majority of these occasions are draining extraordinary folks dry simply due to a easy rip-off that a young person can pull off with restricted expertise. To fight this, implementing “home-based” safety consciousness in your family members is sweet observe. Normally, these types of focused assaults concentrate on the aged or people who’ve a historical past of economic hardship, as they turn into susceptible and simply exploited targets for risk actors.

Contemplating all the elements at play, the human aspect emerges as an important. Consciousness, intelligence, and significant choice making are paramount in having the ability to determine any kind of deepfake and justifying an applicable response. With this exploit growing in quantity every single day, preparedness and a proactive strategy imply all the pieces.


In September 2022, multinational cybersecurity agency Development Micro launched a report that said, “The rising look of deepfake assaults is considerably reshaping the risk panorama for organizations, monetary establishments, celebrities, political figures, and even extraordinary folks.” It continued, “The safety implications of deepfake expertise and assaults that make use of it are actual and damaging.

As we now have demonstrated, it’s not solely organizations and C-level executives which are potential victims of those assaults but additionally extraordinary people. Given the extensive availability of the required instruments and companies, these strategies are accessible to much less technically subtle attackers and teams, which means that malicious actions might be executed at scale.” We’d advocate anybody on this subject learn the complete report — seek for “How Underground Teams Use Stolen Identities and Deepfakes” on

The report concludes with a number of suggestions for customers involved about deepfake assaults. People ought to use multi-factor authentication for on-line accounts, arrange logins primarily based on biometric patterns which are much less uncovered to the general public (e.g. irises and fingerprints) slightly than easy facial recognition, and restrict publicity of high-quality private photos and movies on social media.

Do not forget that each selfie, video, or audio clip you publish may be fed into AI deepfake instruments. The much less knowledge the unhealthy guys have entry to, the much less correct their fakes will probably be. For companies, Development Micro recommends authenticating every consumer/worker by three primary elements: one thing the consumer has (like a bodily key), one thing the consumer is aware of (like a password), and one thing the consumer is (biometrics). Every issue needs to be chosen correctly primarily based on evaluation of the felony risk panorama.

Meet Our Panel

Portrait of W. Dean FreemanW. Dean Freeman

W. Dean Freeman, CISSP-ISSEP CSSLP C|OSINT is a veteran of the cybersecurity trade with over 15 years {of professional} expertise starting from risk intelligence to methods safety engineering, and over 25 years of hobbyist expertise in associated domains. He’s a daily contributor to RECOIL OFFGRID journal, and his writings on preparedness and self-defense subjects have, or will, seem in different publications as effectively. He lives along with his household in central Texas.

Man silhouette on gray studio wall.David Roy

David Roy (a pseudonym, as required by his line of labor) is a worldwide threat administration and data safety govt at a multinational expertise agency and focuses on vital infrastructure safety. He has labored on this house for effectively over a decade and holds a number of trade certifications in info safety, with an academic background in geopolitics and threat administration. He has labored in each the non-public and public sector throughout his profession, and has in depth expertise working throughout North America, Europe, the Center East, and Southeast Asia.

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